A plague of mycotoxins
Feed often contains various mycotoxins that have various structures. Effective mycotoxin binders must be constructed so as to bind as many of these different mycotoxin structures as possible. B.I.O. Tox® from Biochem exhibits very good values for this task.
Moulds and their mycotoxins pose a problem for feeds despite high quality standards. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products from various mold types that can have a toxic effect even in the smallest concentrations. Various analyses have shown that a large proportion of feed samples are contaminated with two or more mycotoxins. This means that the risk of diseases associate with exposure to mycotoxins, so-called mycotoxicoses, is rising rapidly. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that some mycotoxin combinations are synergetic with respect to their toxicity. Although acute mycotoxin poisoning is a relatively rare occurrence, declines in animal performance have been observed. These declines generally take the form of non-specific symptoms such as reduced feed intake and conversion.
Modern mycotoxin management provides a number of measures for minimizing the risk of mycotoxin-related poisoning. The use of mycotoxin binders has proven to be effective; they are dosed into the feed and irreversibly bind the toxins in the digestive tract. The properties of modern, innovative mycotoxin binders should be oriented so that they exhibit a broad adsorption spectrum for a wide variety of mycotoxins. It is currently estimated that there are several hundred mycotoxins, with an extremely wide range of structures that are decisive for the mycotoxin-mycotoxin binder affinity. Among the most important mycotoxins in agriculture are surely the aflatoxin B1 Aspergillus toxin; the ochratoxin A Penicillium toxin; the zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and fumonisin B1 Fusarium toxins; and the T2-toxin.
These mycotoxins form the bases of the Biochem studies that the company conducted in cooperation with well-known international institutions, universities, and laboratories in the U.S., Germany, and Holland. The mycotoxin-specific binding properties were analysed and documented.
Many mycotoxin binders are based primarily on various layered silicates (phyllosilicates) such as bentonite, kaolinite, sepiolite, and vermiculite; and/or framework silicates (tectosilicates) such as clinoptilolite (zeolite); and/or amorphous silicone dioxide such as kieselguhr (diatomaceous earth). At first glance, the types of silicates differ only marginally. The Biochem laboratory studies showed, however, that there are very great differences in the binding behavior of these minerals.
Biochem thoroughly assessed the binding properties with respect to mycotoxins of various raw materials at various pH values. Of course, it was not only natural raw materials that were tested, but also those whose surfaces and pore structures had been optimized via a variety of measures.
On the basis of the binding studies, a range of mycotoxin binders, the B.I.O.Tox® Portfolio, was developed. It possesses a broad binding spectrum for a wide variety of mycotoxins. B.I.O.Tox® reaches the animals’ digestive tract via feed intake, where it irreversibly binds the various mycotoxins or reduces or prevents resorption. Polar and non-polar mycotoxins concentrate on the surface of the toxin binders (adsorption) and, as a complex (adsorbate), are eliminated with the excrement.
This great binding efficiency has been verified by in vitro studies in various independent laboratories. The efficiency of B.I.O.Tox® with respect to such mycotoxins as zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1 was significantly higher than several tested competing products. For instance, the B.I.O.Tox® products achieved a binding efficiency of 83% for the T-2 Fusarium toxin, while the strongest competing product achieved less than 30%.
B.I.O.Tox® products exhibited a high to very high concentration-dependent binding affinity for various mycotoxins. The Biochem mycotoxin binders can thus reduce the detrimental effect to animal health of mycotoxin in feed and prevent a reduction in performance.